Monday, September 28, 2009

Familiar with the term Bit Depth

The term "Bit Depth" to those that are often associated with computer graphics course familiar, or at least you've heard the term uttered even on when to talk with colleagues about the graphics card, monitor, or image file formats. In this article we will know more in with what is "Bit Depth".

Yes and No

Bit is the smallest unit of information that can be understood by computers. Bit 2 state declared; "Yes" and "No" (in other terms Positive / negative, or in the notation 0 / 1). The information in the computer is handled in a way to explain something with "Yes" or "No", including the monitor. The monitor was developed by the small squares (pixels / cell) that contains information / bits that determines what color will understand ditampilkan.Untuk bit, we take the example of a black screen and white (1 bit), if the pixel states "Yes" then a box will be white, if the pixel declared "No" then the box will be black.

In pixels that can display 2-bit color, meaning there are 2 statements "Yes" and 2 claims "No", then the number of colors can be displayed 2 bits x 2 = 4 color statement. Pixel is capable of displaying a 3-bit means 2 x 2 x 2 = 8 colors, 4 bits means 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 24 = 16 colors and can be concluded that seterusnya.Jadi bit pixel depth is the capability of storing bits or information, in this will affect the number of colors that can be displayed.

Bits and File Format

Each image file format that we use on the Web have the ability to store a different color. As we know, a common image formats used on the Web are GIF, JPEG, and PNG. GIF can display colors 8 Bit (256 colors), JPEG display up to 24 bit color or more than 16 million colors, and PNG can display up to 32 Bit color.

However, any number of colors you use in the picture, the display is determined by the end of fixed kemampuar computer screen displays colors.

Pengetahuan Tentang Ilmu Fotograf





Kata photography berasal dari kata photo yang berarti cahaya dan graph yang berarti gambar. Jadi photography bisa diartikan menggambar/melukis dengan cahaya.

Jenis-jenis kamera

a) Kamera film, sekarang juga disebut dengan kamera analog oleh beberapa orang.

Format film
Sebelum kita melangkah ke jenis-jenis kamera film ada baiknya kita mengenal terlebih dahulu berbagai macam format/ukuran film.
1. APS, Advanced Photography System. Format kecil dengan ukuran film 16x24mm, dikemas dalam cartridge. Meski format ini tergolong baru, namun tidak populer. Toko yang menjual film jenis ini susah dicari di Indonesia
2. Format 135. Dikenal juga dengan film 35mm. Mempunyai ukuran 24x36mm, dikemas dalam bentuk cartridge berisi 20 atau 36 frame. Format ini adalah format yang paling populer, banyak kita temui di sekitar kita
3. Medium format
4. Large format

Jenis Film
1. Film B/W, film negatif hitam putih
2. Film negatif warna. Paling populer, sering kita pakai
3. Film positif, biasa juga disebut slide. Lebih mahal dan rawan overexposure. Meski demikian warna-warna yang dihasilkan lebih bagus karena dapat menangkap rentang kontras yang lebih luas

Jenis-jenis kamera Film
1. Pocket/compact. Kamera saku. Populer bagi orang awam, sederhana dan mudah dioperasikan. Menggunakan film format 35mm
2. Rangefinder. Kamera pencari jarak. Kecil, sekilas mirip dengan kamera saku. Bedanya, kamera ini mempunyai mekanisme fokusing (karenanya disebut rangefinder). Umumnya menggunakan film format 35mm
3. SLR, Single Lens Reflex. Kamera refleks lensa tunggal. Populer di kalangan profesional, amatir dan hobiis. Umumnya mempunyai lensa yang dapat diganti. Menggunakan film format 35mm. Disebut juga kamera sistem
4. TLR, Twin Lens Reflex. Kamera refleks lensa ganda. Biasanya menggunakan format medium
5. Viewfinder. Biasanya menggunakan format medium

Kamera manual dan kamera otomatis. Kamera-kamera SLR terbaru umumnya sudah dilengkapi sistem autofokus dan autoexposure namun masih dapat dioperasikan secara manual.

b ) Kamera digital
Menggunakan sensor digital sebagai pengganti film
1. Consumer. Kamera saku, murah, mudah pemakaiannya. Lensa tak dapat diganti. Sebagian besar hanya punya mode full-otomatis. Just point and shoot. Beberapa, seperti Canon seri A, memiliki mode manual.
2. Prosumer. Kamera SLR-like, harga menengah. Lensa tak dapat diganti. Shooting Mode manual dan auto
3. DSLR. Digital SLR


Lensa Kamera

mata dari kamera, secara umum menentukan kualitas foto yang dihasilkan lensa memiliki 2 properties penting yaitu panjang fokal dan aperture maksimum.

Field of View (FOV)
tiap lensa memiliki FOV yang lebarnya tergantung dari panjang fokalnya dan luas film/sensor yang digunakan.

Field of View Crop
sering disebut secara salah kaprah dengan focal length multiplier. Hampir semua kamera digital memiliki ukuran sensor yang lebih kecil daripada film 35mm, maka pada field of view kamera digital lebih kecil dari pada kamera 35mm. Misal lensa 50 mm pada Nikon D70 memiliki FOV yang sama dengan lensa 75mm pada kamera film 35mm (FOV crop factor 1.5x)

Jenis-jenis Lensa
a. berdasarkan prime-vario
1. Fixed focal/Prime, memiliki panjang fokal tetap, misal Fujinon 35mm F/3.5 memiliki panjang fokal 35 mm. Lensa prime kurang fleksibel, namun kualitasnya lebih tinggi daripada lensa zoom pada harga yang sama
2. Zoom/Vario, memiliki panjang fokal yang dapat diubah, misal Canon EF-S 18-55mm F/3.5-5.6 memiliki panjang fokal yang dapat diubah dari 18 mm sampai 55 mm. Fleksibel karena panjang fokalnya yang dapat diatur

b. berdasarkan panjang focal
1. Wide, lensa dengan FOV lebar, panjang fokal 35 mm atau kurang. Biasanya digunakan untuk memotret pemandangan dan gedung
2. Normal, panjang fokal sekitar 50 mm. Lensa serbaguna, cepat dan harganya murah
3. Tele, lensa dengan FOV sempit, panjang fokal 70mm atau lebih. Untuk memotret dari jarak jauh

c. berdasarkan aperture maksimumnya
1. Cepat, memiliki aperture maksimum yang lebar
2. Lambat, memiliki aperture maksimum sempit

d. lensa-lensa khusus
1. Lensa Makro, digunakan untuk memotret dari jarak dekat
2. Lensa Tilt and Shift, bisa dibengkokan

Ketentuan lensa lebar/tele (berdasarkan panjang focal) di atas berlaku untuk kamera film 35mm. Lensa Nikkor 50 mm menjadi lensa normal pada kamera film 35mm, tapi menjadi lensa tele jika digunakan pada kamera digital Nikon D70. Pada Nikon D70 FOV Nikkor 50 mm setara dengan FOV lensa 75 mm pada kamera film 35mm

Peralatan bantu lain
- Tripod , diperlukan untuk pemotretan dengan kecepatan lambat. Pada kecepatan lambat, menghindari goyangan kamera jika dipegang dengan tangan (handheld). Secara umum kecepatan minimal handhel adalah 1/focal.
Membawa tripod saat hunting bisa merepotkan. Untuk keperluan hunting biasanya tripod yang dibawa adalah tripod yang ringan dan kecil.
- Monopod , mirip tripod, kaki satu. Lebih mudah dibawa. Hanya dapat menghilangkan goyangan vertikal saja.
- Flash/blitz/lampu kilat , untuk menerangai obyek dalam kondisi gelap
- Filter , untuk menyaring cahaya yang masuk. Ada banyak jenisnya :
UV, menyaring cahaya UV agar tidak terjadi hazy pada foto2 landscape, sering digunakan untuk melindungi lensa dari debu.
PL/CPL (Polarizer/Circular Polarizar) untuk mengurangi bayangan pada permukaan non logam. Bisa juga untuk menambah kontras langit

Exposure

jumlah cahaya yang masuk ke kamera, tergantung dari aperture dan kecepatan.
- Aperture/diafragma . Makin besar aperture makin banyak cahaya yang masuk. Aperture dinyatakan dengan angka angka antara lain sebagai berikut: f/1,4 f/2 f/3,5 f/5.6 f/8. semakin besar angkanya (f number), aperture makin kecil aperturenya
- Shutter speed/kecepatan rana . Makin cepat, makin sedikit cahaya yang masuk
- ISO , menyatakan sensitivitas sensor/film. Makin tinggi ISOnya maka jumlah cahaya yang dibutuhkan makin sedikit. Film ISO 100 memerlukan jumlah cahaya 2 kali film ISO 200
Contoh: kombinasi diafragma f/5.6 kec. 1/500 pada ISO 100 setara dengan diafragma f/8 kec 1/500 atau f/5.6 kec. 1/1000 pada ISO 200.

Exposure meter , pengukur cahaya. Hampir tiap kamera modern memiliki pengukur cahaya internal. Selain itu juga tersedia pengukur cahaya eksternal

Exposure metering ( sering disingkat dengan metering )
adalah metode pengukuran cahaya
1. Average metering , mengukur cahaya rata-rata seluruh frame
2. Center-weighted average metering , mengukur cahaya rata-rata dengan titik berat bagian tengah
3. Matrix/Evaluative metering , Mengukur cahaya di berbagai bagian dari frame, untuk kemudian dikalkulasi dengan metode-metode otomatis tertentu
4. Spot metering , mengukur cahaya hanya pada bagian kecil di tengah frame saja

Exposure compensation, 18% grey . Exposure meter selalu mengukur cahaya dan menhasilkan pengukuran sehingga terang foto yang dihasilkan berkisar pada 18% grey. Jadi kalau kita membidik sebidang kain putih dan menggunakan seting exposure sebagaimana yang ditunjukan oleh meter, maka kain putih tersebut akan menjadi abu-abu dalam foto. Untuk mengatasi hal tersebut kita harus melakukan exposure compensation. Exposure kita tambah sehingga kain menjadi putih.

Under exposured = foto terlalu gelap karena kurang exposure
Over exposured = foto terlalu terang karena kelebihan exposure

Istilah stop
Naik 1 stop, artinya exposure dinaikkan menjadi 2 kali.
Naik 2 stop, artinya exposure dinaikkan menjadi 4 kali.
Turun 1 stop exposure diturunkan menjadi 1/2 kali.
Turun 2 stop exposure diturunkan menjadi 1/4 kali.

Kenaikan 1 stop pada aperture sebagai berikut: f/22; f/16; f/11; f/8; f/5,6; f/4; f/2,8; f/2.
Beda f number tiap stop adalah 0,7 kali (1/ akar2).

Kenaikan 1 stop pada kec. Rana sebagai berikut: 1/2000; 1/1000; 1/500; 1/250; 1/125; 1/60; 1/30; 1/15; 1/8; 1/4; 1/2; 1.
Beda speed tiap stop adalah 2 kali

DOF , Depth of Field, kedalaman medan. DOF adalah daerah tajam di sekitar fokus.
Kedalaman medan dipengaruhi oleh besar aperture, panjang fokal, dan jarak ke obyek.
1. Aperture, semakin besar aperture (f number makin kecil) maka DOF akan makin dangkal/sempit
2. Panjang fokal (riil), semakin panjang fokal, DOF makin dangkal/sempit
3. Jarak ke obyek, semakin dekat jarak ke obyek maka DOF makin dangkal/sempit

Pemilihan DOF
- Jika DOF sempit, FG dan BG akan blur. DOF sempit digunakan jika kita ingin mengisolasi/menonjolkan obyek dari lingkungan sekitarnya misalnya pada foto-foto portrait atau foto bunga.
- Jika DOF lebar, FG dan BG tampak lebih tajam. DOF lebar digunakan jika kita menginginkan hampir seluruh bagian pada foto nampak tajam, seperti pada foto landscape atau foto jurnalistik.

Shooting mode
Mode auto , mode point and shoot, tinggal bidik dan jepret
1. Full auto, kamera yang menentukan semua parameter
2. Portrait, kamera menggunakan aperture terbesar untuk menyempitkan DOF
3. Landscape, kamera menggunakan aperture terkecil
4. Nightscene, menggunakan kecepatan lambat dan flash untuk menangkap obyek dan BG sekaligus
5. Fast shuter speed
6. Slow shutter speed

Creative zone
1. P, program AE. Mirip dengan mode auto dengan kontrol lebih. Dengan mode ini kita bisa mengontrol exposure compensation, ISO, metering mode, Auto/manual fokus, white balance, flash on/off, dan continues shooting.
2. Tv, shutter speed priority AE. Kita menetukan speed, kamera akan menghitung aperture yang tepat
3. Av, aperture priority AE. Kita menentukan aperture, kamera mengatur speed
4. M, manual exposure. Kita yang menentukan aperture dan speed secara manual

Komposisi dan Angle
Komposisi adalah penempatan obyek dalam frame foto
Angle adalah sudut pemotretan, dari bawah, atas, atau sejajar
Komposisi dan angle lebih menyangkut ke seni dari fotografi. Faktor selera fotografer sangat besar pengaruhnya.

Tips Penggunaan Gambar Pada Web Desain

Seringkali para Designer Web pemula menggunakan gambar yang berlebih dalam mendesain, akibatnya web tersebut akan terasa lambat saat di load oleh browser.
Walaupun secara grafis web tersebut bagus namun dalam mendesign sebuah halaman web designer harus memperhatikan isi (content) dari web tersebut, jangan sampai anda mengalahkan fungsi dari web sebenarnya hanya karena tampilan grafis.

Pemakaian grafis harus dapat mengatasi kebutuhan dan fungsi dari situs, misalkan komposisi warna dan bentuk, dan kesan yang akan ditonjolkan dari web tersebut, apakah untuk tujuan komersial ? situs pribadi ? perusahaan ? pemerintah ? ataukah tempat gallery online ? dan masih banyak lagi.

Pemakaian grafis atau gambar yang kurang tepat pada sebuah web dapat mengakibatkan anda akan kehilangan pengunjung yang sebenarnya anda butuhkan.



Penggunaan Gambar Pada Web
Berikut ini adalah daftar bagian dari web yang biasanya memakai gambar namun banyak juga designer web yang menggunakan text untuk bagian tersebut.

1. Tombol Navigasi
Tombol navigasi mutlak diperlukan dalam sebuah web, dengan pengaturan tombol navigasi yang jelas akan membantu pengunjung menemukan informasi yang diinginkanya, berberapa hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam membuat tombol navigasi adalah Tulisan atau Text harus dapat dilihat dengan jelas dan mudah dibaca.

2. Logo
Baik itu logo perusahaan, organisasi atau logo pribadi sering menggunakan gambar, logo berfungsi sebagai gambar identitas dari perusahaan, logo yang bagus dapat meningkatkan brand name suatu perusahaan atau organisasi.

3. Site Map
Penggunaan site map secara gambar memang dapat memudahkan pengunjung dalam mencari informasi namun penggunaan gambar dalam site map harus di pilih benar apakah web anda menjadi terlalu lamabt atau tidak.

4. Bullet
bullet banyak digunakan untuk penekanan point-point tertentu pada dokumen

5. Banner
Banner yang dipasang di website dengan tujuan untuk memperbaiki komposisi bentuk, warna dan informasi penting (Hot Items) sering digunakan dalam website, dengan grafis yang menarik pengunjung akan tertarik untuk mengklik banner tersebut. - Also known as a title graphic. Main function is to let your visitors know which web

6. Garis Batas
Garis batas antar menu, bagian web, pemisah footer, header dan isi web baik horizontal maupun vertical layak digunakan karena biasanya garis batas mempunyai ukuran file yang kecil.

7. Gambar Background
Bagian ini digunakan untuk memberikan ciri khas, dan komposisi isi dan background pada web yang akan dibuat, asalkan file gambar yang digunakan tidak terlalu besar, gambar Background layak digunakan.

8. Headings
Alasan gambar digunakan untuk heading yang paling sering adalah karena beberapa tipe text tidak terdapat pada computer client, karena itulah digunakan file gambar sebagai gantinya.

9. Photo
Foto kegiatan atau bagian kegiatan yang menonjolkan specific dari website sangat diperlukan, dengan foto yang jelas diharapkan pengunjung langsung dapat mengerti milik siapa,untuk apa website itu dibuat, dan category apakah web site tersebut. Penggunaan foto sering dipakai untuk memperjelas item produk pada website e-commerce.


Beberapa hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam pemilihan dan pemakaian gambar atau grafis agar tampak serasi pada web yang anda buat
adalah :
1. Warna semua grafis harus serasi, baik itu antara menu, logo perusahaan atau orgonasisasi, header, footer dan gackground yang digunakan.

2. Warna dalam text tombol navigasi harus dapat dibaca dengan jelas, perhatikan ukuran teks yang akan dimasukkan pada tombol navigasi, apakah terlalu kecil ? apakah sudah enak dibaca?, biasanya warna text dalam tombol navigasi disesuaikan (tidak harus sama) dengan warna Logo atau Judul utama website

3. jangan gunakan terlalu banyak kombinasi warna, sebab kombinasi warna yang berlebihan akan terkesan norak dan memperlambat proses download browser, cukup gunakan dua sampai 4 kombinasi warna dalam website, kecuali mascot atau icon tertentu.

4. Perhatikan ukuran website anda terhadap setiap penambahan gambar atau grafis, ukuran paling umum adalah 40 sampai dengan 70 K, dengan rata-rata koneksi modem 28.8

5. Pisahkan gambar yang mempunyai warna berbeda, hal ini terjadi pada bagian grafis yang terdapat degradasi warna atau dua warna lebih.lebih baik usahakan untuk memotong perbagian warna yang berbeda, hal ini dapat mempercepat proses download gambar pada browser.

6. Pilihlah jenis file yang benar, kapan anda menggunakan file gamabr jpeg dan kapan menggunakan gif, pemilihan jenis file gamabr yang tepat akan mempercepat proses download browser.

Ingat pemakaian grafis jangan sampai menjadikan fungsi utama website tidak terpenuhi, apabila terlalu besar ukuran website anda akibat banyaknya file gambar, gantilah background, garis pemisah, bullet, heading dan dengan HTML

Fungsi dan Arti Tanda Cress



kress6.jpg
Dalam Teks Cetak, keberadaan cress baik itu cress lipat apalagi cress potong sangat penting. Fungsi dari cress itu sendiri adalah sebagai panduan dalam proses cetak dan potong/sisir dalam tahap finishing. Pada proses cetak , cress berguna untuk melihat ketepatan antara warna satu dengan warna lainnya, khususnya pada mesin satu atau dua warna. Jika posisi cress warna satu dengan yang lainnya pada cetakan sparasi/fullcolor tidak tepat, maka hasil cetakan berantakan, contoh pada gambar wajah mungkin mata akan kelihatan dobel atau ada bayangannya, pada teks warna akan kelihatan saling tertumpuk.

kress5.jpg

Sehingga ketepatan cress antar warna sangat penting untuk hasil cetak yang bagus. Sedangkan pada proses potong, cress adalah sebagai panduan bagian mana yang dipotong dan bagian mana yang tidak dipotong. Jika tidak ada tanda cress, maka kesalahan pemotongan sangat mungkin terjadi.

Ada beberapa contoh model Cress, tapi kita juga boleh memodifikasinya sesuai kreatifitas desainer. Yang penting tidak menghilangkan fungsinya. Selanjutnya arti tanda Cress yang biasa dipakai dalam proses cetak, walau kadang ada tanda cress khusus pada cetakan tertentu, misal untuk amplop, dan kemasan (cress untuk panduan proses phon).

kress 1.jpg

Adapun tanda warna CMYK yang biasanya berpasangan dengan tanda cress, juga penting artinya bagi operator mesin cetak. Fungsinya adalah untuk panduan warna dalam menyetel tinta. Dalam tanda warna CMYK biasanya terdiri dari warna CMYK solid(masing-masing 100%) dan rasternya (sesuai desainnya). Contoh tanda Warna CMYK:

kress 2.jpg

Sekarang berapa ukuran cress ? ukuran cress yang biasa dipakai adalah 5 mm, ukuran ini dibagi 2,5mm diukur dari ukuran jadi (ukuran sebenarnya dari hasil akhir), yang 2,5mm diukur dari tepi sisiran (bidang desain yang merupakan bidang lebih, dimaksudkan agar hasil dari proses potong tidak ada warna kertas putih).

kress 4.jpg

Yang harus diperhatikan dan sangat penting, garis cress untuk film sparasi/full color harus CMYK sebaiknya masing-masing 100%

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Various Shapes And Images File Extention

In The world of graphic design you may often find the extention as *.JPEG, *.JPG, *.PSD and others. What and where lies the difference in the image file extention, for more detail, please read this artile:

PSD (Photoshop Document)


This file format is the native format of Adobe Photoshop. This format can store the information layer and alpha channel contained in an image, so that one day can be opened and edited again. This format is also able to save images in some fashion colors provided Photoshop. You can save this file format if you want to edit it again.

BMP (Bitmap Image)

This file format is a flexible graphics format for Windows platform that can be read by any graphics program. This format can store information with high levels served until 1 bits 24 bits. The weakness of this file format is not able to save the alpha channel, and there are obstacles in the exchange platform. To create an object as a desktop wallpaper, save your document with this file format. You can compress this file format with RLE compression.
This file format capable of storing images in color modes RGB, Grayscale, Indexed Color, and Bitmap.

EPS (Encapsuled Postcript)

This file format is a format often used for document exchange between graphical programs. In addition, this file format often used when want to print pictures. Advantages of this file format using postscript language so that this file format recognized by almost all print preparation programs.
The weakness of this file format is not able to save the alpha channel, so that many users of Adobe Photoshop to use this file format when the image is done is final. This file format can store pictures in color mode RGB, CMYK, Lab, duotone, Grayscale, Indexed Color and Bitmap. Also the file format is also able to save the clipping path.

JPG / JPEG (Joint Photographic Expert Group)

This file format can compress the object with a high level in accordance with the options provided. File format is often used to store images that will be used for web pages, multimedia, and other electronic publications. This file format can store pictures in color mode RGB, CMYK, and Grayscale. This file format is also capable of storing alpha channel, but because of its orientation to the format of the electronic publication of this relatively smaller size compared to other file formats.

GIF (Graphic Interchange Format)

This file format can only store in 8 bits (only supports the Grayscale color mode, Bitmap and Indexed Color). This file format is a standard format for electronic publications and the Internet. File format capable of storing two-dimensional animation that will be published on the Internet, web page design and electronic publications. This file format can compress a small size using LZW compression.

TIF (Tagged Image File Format)

This file format can store pictures with the quality up to 32 bits. This file format can also be used for the purposes of exchange between platforms (PC, Machintosh, and Silicon Graphics). This file format is one of the selected format and is preferred by computer users, especially graphics-oriented publications (print). Almost all programs that can read bitmap file formats are also able to read the TIF file format.

PCX

This file format was developed by a company called Zoft Cooperation. This file format is a flexible format for nearly all programs on your PC able to read images with this file format. This file format can store bits of information depth of 1 to 24 bit but was unable to save the alpha channel. This file format can store pictures in RGB color mode, Grayscale, and Indexed Color Bitmpa.

PDF (Portable Document Format)

This file format used by Adobe Acrobat, and can be used by the pixel-based graphics or vector. This file format can store pictures in color mode RGB, CMYK, Indexed Color, Lab Color, Grayscale and Bitmap. This file format is not able to save the alpha channel. This file format is often used JPG and ZIP compression, except for the color mode of bitmap using CCIT.

PNG (Portable Network Graphic)

This file format serves as an alternative to GIF file format. This file format used to display objects in web pages. The advantages of this file format compared to the GIF format is the ability to save files in the bit depth to 24 bit and capable of producing background (background) is transparent with a smooth edge. This file format can store alpha channel.


PIC (Pict)

This file format is standard in the Macintosh graphics applications and text-processing program with high quality for the transfer of documents between applications. This file format can store pictures in RGB color mode with alpha channel 1 and Indexed Color, Grayscale and bitmap without alpha channel. This file format also provides a choice between 16-bit and 32 bit in RGB color mode.

TGA (Targa)

This file format is designed for platforms that use the Targa True Vision Video Board. This file format capable of storing images in RGB color mode and 32 bit alpha channel 1, also Grayscale, Indexed Color, RGB and in 16 or 24 bits without alpha channel. This file format allows you to save a document from the rendering of the animation program with a sequence of output results as 3D Studio Max.

IFF (Interchange File Format)

This file format is commonly used to work with the Video Toaster and the exchange process and the documentation of Comodore Amiga System. This file format recognized almost all graphics programs contained in the PC and be able to save images in bitmap color mode. This file format is not able to save the alpha channel.

SCT (Scitex continuous tone)

This file format used to store high-quality documents on Scitex computers. This file format can store pictures in color mode RGB, CMYK, and Grayscale but was unable to save the alpha channel.

PXR (Pixar)

This file format for the exchange of documents with the Pixar Image Computer. This file format can store pictures in color mode RGB and Grayscale with alpha channel 1.

RAW

This file format is a flexible file format for the exchange of documents between applications and platforms. This file format can store color modes RGB, CMYK, and Grayscale with alpha channel 1 and the color mode Multichannel, Lab Color and duotone without alpha channel.

DCS (Desktop Color Separation)

This file format was developed by Quark and is a standard format. Eps. This format can store pictures with Multichannel color mode and CMYK with alpha channel and 1 more spot channel. This file format capable of storing clipping path and is often used for process printing (publishing). When saving files in this format is to be stored is 4 channels of the image and the preview channel 1.

Compression format

Some programs are oriented primarily on electronic publications and multimedia file format always requires a small-sized so that when opened will not be slow. For the purposes of the required compression.
The following file formats oriented electronic publishing and multimedia compression respectively.

RLE (Run Length Encoding)

This compression can compress files without losing detail. Used by Adobe Photoshop, TIFF and most of the programs included in Windows.

LZW (Zif-Lemple-Welf)

Just like RLE compression, compression is also able to compress files without losing detail. Compression is used by TIFF, PDF, GIF, and format that supports postscript language. This is very good compression to compress images with large areas using color 1.

JPG (Joint Photographic Experts Group)

These formats compress the file by removing detail. This file format is often used by JPG, PDF, and formats that use the postscript language. This is very good compression used for images with continuous tones like photos.

CCIT

CCIT is an abbreviation of the French language in English is called the International Telegraph and Telekeyed Consultive Committee.
Compression is used to compress black and white images, and can compress files without losing detail. Compression is often used by the PDF and other formats using postscript language.

NOTES
========

  • When storing documents in file formats that can not save the information layer, then you must change the image into image flaten first.
  • File format that can store duotone color mode is EPS, RAW, and PSD. Therefore, when you want to save in another format then you must change the first color mode, the RGB when the document did not want to print, because it duotone information will be broken down into RGB.
  • File format that can store Color Lab color mode is PSD, RAW, TIF, PDF, and EPS. File format that can store CMYK color mode only PSD, RAW, EPS, TIF, JPG, PDF, dams SCT.
  • Color Indexed Color mode can save some settings file format indexed according to its color.
  • Dapatdisimpan RGB color mode on all existing file formats in Adobe Photoshop.
  • The format recommended by the professional designers is
o PSD = for documents that still want to edit again
o EPS = to have final documents for print preparation
o JPG= to print compression above 8 bits and for photos in the web with compression below
o GIF = for illustration and animation on web pages.
o TIF = to print, cross-platform exchange of documents and animated sequences

Persamaan dan Perbedaan photoshop CS3 dan CS4 Extende




Photoshop, siapa desainer grafis maupun Photo editor yang tidak mengenal program yang satu ini. dan di Tahun 2007 adobe telah merilis produk software terbarunya yaitu Photoshop CS3.

Soal kemampuan? Jangan ditanya karena produk ini memiliki fitur-fitur tambahan yang lebih dari versi sebelumnya yaitu Photoshop CS maupun Photoshop CS2 dan anda akan sangat merasa sangat dimanjakan sebagai seorang desainer grafis maupun photo editor.


Untuk diketahui ternyata Photoshop CS 3 ada 2 macam yaitu Photoshop CS 3 Standart dan Photoshop CS 3 Extended, untuk melihat mencoba mendownload dan melihat berapa harga Software ini anda bisa menggunakan Google Services dengan mengetik keyword:
- Photoshop CS 3
- Photoshop CS 3 Extended
- Trial Photoshop CS 3
- Pricelist Photoshop CS 3
- dll

Baiklah sekarang mari kita tilik persamaan dan perbedaannya:
+ Persamaan Photoshop CS 3 dan CS 3 Extended

1. Membutuhkan sistem requirement yang sama

* Windows System
Sistem Requirement
Yaitu Hardware dan Software minimum yang dibutuhkan untuk menjalankan program ini:

  • Min Hard Drive Space: 1 GB
  • Min Operating System: Windows Vista (certified for 32-bit), or Windows XP with SP2
  • Min Processor Type: Intel Pentium® 4, Centrino, Xeon, or Core Duo
  • Min RAM Size: 512 MB
  • Other Requirements: DVD-ROM drive, 1024x768 screen resolution with 16-bit color and 64 MB of VRAM
  • Advanced Feature Requirements: QuickTime 7, Broadband internet connection

jadi jangan harap dengan komputer pentium 1 atau 2 anda mau menginstal program ini - bisa hank dan Jebol nantinya, hehehe... :)

+ Perbedaan Photoshop CS 3 dan CS 3 Extended :
Untuk Perbedaannya kita mulai dari Product Desciption (Penjelasan Produk)

ADOBE PHOTOSHOP CS3
Adobe® Photoshop® CS3 software accelerates your path from imagination to imagery. Ideal for photographers, graphic designers, and web designers, the professional standard delivers new features such as automatic layer alignment and blending that enable advanced compositing. Live filters boost the comprehensive, nondestructive editing toolset for increased flexibility. And a streamlined interface and new timesaving tools make your work flow faster.

ADOBE PHOTOSHOP CS3 EXTENDED
Adobe® Photoshop® CS3 Extended software accelerates your path from imagination to imagery. Ideal for photographers, graphic designers, and web designers, the professional standard delivers new features such as automatic layer alignment and blending that enable advanced compositing. Live filters boost the comprehensive, nondestructive editing toolset for increased flexibility. And a streamlined interface and new timesaving tools make your work flow faster. + Get everything in Adobe® Photoshop® CS3 software and more with Photoshop CS3 Extended, which enables you to edit 3D and motion-based content and perform image analysis.

Jadi bisa dilihat bahwa Photoshop CS 3 Extended lebih extrim dan sesuai dengan kebutuhan desainer profesional karena terdapat tambahan dalam editing 3D.

Tips and Logo Design Objectives






Logo is the icon that represents something, and as a symbol that can explain briefly about the brand image of a product or company. With the logo of a company will have its own brand which will be known by the public in this case consumers. Therefore please note that the logo has and carry out an objective, namely:

1. Mark-Ing interpreted form
To do this interpretation is usually a designer to use analog theory to represent the form in question. Form which is usually taken from the name of something objects (corporate or product) which made its logo.

2. Eye-Catching
A logo design will have more value if you have eye-catching element. With so many pictures on display, both at the outlet, bookstore, or a stack of business cards, if the logo is able to attract more dominant than the pictures or other forms?

To be able to create a logo design is eye-catching is not easy. There are several things that must be considered. Began to target markets, the characteristics of the intended audience, or media that will be used, and so on. But this can be learned, and requires hours of high flying.

One of the elements on which to make a design has eye-catching is a unique concept. Apart form the mark-ing the unique shape also became one of the requirements of a logo design able to seize the audience's attention. There are a lot of symbol that can be used to interpret an object, but the actual number of alternative options have one or one of two more eye-catching. From the basic form of a logo design can actually be added cosmetic (to borrow a fashion term) or supporting ornaments, a form of nature as a sweetener. Also because of its cosmetic here only as a sweetener, it is not so dominant power. Form which can be selected as the cosmetic form of a round, square, square, triangle, or just a curved line.

3. Trend
Logo development more or less influenced by the trend, such as trends in the fashion world. Trend appreciation here represents the dynamics of the shape of the logo itself. As we know in early 2000, the trend for developing a logo that is a digital form, which form more here represented by the line and dot (point). This refers to the era of fast-growing IT at the beginning of the year. Where many of the forms which represent the world of IT to trade mark logos are born at that time. Starting from the concept of fonts to matrix effects of major influence on the birth process logos.

Actual trend is identical to the influenza epidemic that spread with no known origin. Affect each other and have the incubasi. Sometimes circular or recurrent nature, which the old concept back into the new trend. Many factors caused this trend, which all derive from the external. Because of symptoms that can occur around us, such as fashion, TV, system, politics, etc..

In the era of the 70s, the design of more use to interpret the details of an object. Design a logo that is much use of its detailed illustrations (original approach). Probably exactly the flow of naturalists, it affects the design concepts logos are born at that time. Then in the era of the 90's, logo design concept changed to a more simple. Detailed form of objects that are no longer used to interpret a logo. Lebihcenderung design is minimalist. And in the era of the 2000 development of more complex changes than the form of coloring as well (full color) to be very minimalist in here. Color - the color used in the logos that were born in this era tend to use solid colors and impressive minimalist color, other than the line and dot forms. Perhaps a more appropriate term for this is the era-Clipart.

In addressing the trend, there are things that can be used as reference in designing a design, whether as a trend follower? or as a creator of trends?, or rather we remain solid in our designs unique atmosphere. It's up to the designers to position the design. Certainly the trend is one of appreciation for the dynamics of a development. As long as we see it as something positive then we will have a value-added insights and broader ideas. And vice versa, if we see it as a barrier so we can not accept the shortcomings of our design is more proportional.

Additional tips
You can find examples of logos - the famous logo of a company as an additional insight and inspiration that is by using Google's service with the Keyword / Keyword: Corporate Logo, Logo Designer, Company Logo.

Importance of Color Selection








Color is one of the important elements in graphic design. In the science of art, color can represent the emotions of the work so that the message of these works can be more easily accepted by the audience. Elements of color in graphic design also has the function. The easiest example is the color analogy to things around us. For example; clouds = area = light blue, sun = bright = yellow, Wood = ancient, classical = brown, Fire = fire, spirit = red.

When designing a work, we often had difficulty determining the color that matches the theme or the desired impression. Here are tips I have to choose colors, hopefully can help.

1. Prepare the theme and the desired impression to the design. Is memorable classic, modern, natural, or the other depending on your needs.

2. Look for illustrations or photos that match your theme. Shots can be your own photos, or free image such as Stock Exchange.
3. Take some sample colors from photos / illustrations that you selected earlier.

4. Arrange your design using the design software you have. Corel Draw, Photoshop or similar software.

5. Fantastic use these colors for your design, starting from the header, headline, background.

6. Try some alternatives to the composition of color.

Pentingnya Pemilihan Warna

Warna adalah salah satu elemen yang cukup penting dalam desain grafis. Dalam ilmu seni rupa, warna bisa mewakili emosi dari karya tersebut sehingga pesan dari karya tersebut bisa lebih mudah diterima oleh audience. Elemen warna dalam desain grafis juga memiliki fungsi tersebut. Contoh yang paling mudah adalah dengan menganalogikan warna terhadap hal-hal disekeliling kita. Misalnya; Awan=luas=biru muda, Matahari=cerah=kuning muda, Kayu=kuno, klasik=coklat, Api=menyala, semangat=merah.

Ketika merancang sebuah karya, kita sering kesulitan menentukan warna yang cocok dengan tema atau kesan yang diinginkan. Berikut saya sampaikan tips memilih warna, semoga bisa membantu.

1. Siapkan tema dan kesan yang diinginkan untuk desain tersebut. Apakah berkesan klasik, modern, natural, atau yang lain tergantung kebutuhan anda.

2. Cari ilustrasi atau foto yang sesuai dengan tema anda. Bisa hasil jepretan foto anda sendiri, atau free image seperti Stock Exchange misalnya.
3. Ambil beberapa sample warna dari foto/ilustrasi yang anda pilih tadi.

4. Susun desain anda menggunakan software desain yang anda miliki. Corel Draw, Photoshop, atau software sejenis.

5. Gunakan warna-warna tersebut untuk desain anda, mulai dari header, headline, background.

6. Coba beberapa alternatif untuk komposisi warnanya.

Saturday, September 26, 2009

About Graphic design

About Graphic Design

Graphic design is a form of visual communication using images to convey information or messages as effectively as possible. In graphic design, text, images are also considered as an abstraction of symbols that can be sounded. Graphic design is applied in communication design and fine art. Like other types of design, graphic design can refer to the process of manufacturing, design methods, the product (design), or any discipline that is used (design).
Graphic design art include cognitive abilities and visual skills, including typography, illustration, photography, image processing, and layout.

Limitation Media

Graphic design was originally applied to static media, such as books, magazines, and brochures. In addition, in line with the times, graphic design is also applied in the electronic media, which are often referred to as interactive design or multimedia design.
One-dimensional boundary has changed over the development of thinking about design. Graphic design can be applied to a design environment that includes the processing space.

Principles and design elements
Elements in graphic design as basic elements in other design disciplines. These elements (including shape, shape (form), texture, line, space, and color) form the basic principles of visual design. These principles, such as the balance (balance), rhythm (rhythm), stress (emphasis), the proportion ( "proportion") and unity (unity), then form a structural aspect of a larger composition.

Graphic design tools
The equipment used by graphic designers is the idea, mind, eyes, hands, hand drawing tools, and computers. A concept or idea is usually not considered as a design before it is realized or expressed in visual form.
In mid 1980, the arrival of desktop publishing and the introduction of graphic software applications introduced a generation of designers in the computer image manipulation and 3D image creation that previously was a hard work. Computer graphic design allows designers to see the results of layout or typography changes instantly without using ink or a pen, or to simulate the effects of traditional media without demanding a lot of space.
A graphic designers use sketches to explore ideas that are complex quickly, and then he has the freedom to choose the tools to finish, by hand or computer.

Graphic Design Software List
There are several software used in graphic design:


Desktop publishing

  • Adobe Photoshop
  • Adobe Illustrator
  • Adobe Indesign
  • Page Maker
  • Coreldraw
  • GIMP
  • Inkscape
  • Adobe Freehand
  • Adobe image ready
  • CorelDraw

Webdesign

  • Macromedia Dreamweaver
  • Microsoft Frontpage
  • Notepad
  • Adobe Photoshop

Audiovisual

  • Adobe After Effect
  • Adobe Premier
  • Final Cut
  • Adobe Flash, atau sebelumnya Macromedia Flash

Rendering 3 Dimensi

  • 3D StudioMax
  • Maya
  • AutoCad
  • Google SketchUp
  • Blender


Saturday, September 5, 2009

aBouT fReewaRe

Messenger Blocker 1.0

Use of the Internet has penetrated no longer limited by age can bring negative impact. Therefore, the use of aplikas connected to the internet by children necessary supervised and controlled by parents.

Dangerous if you do not watch any applications that are used by them, while surfing through a browser. One of the applications that need to be monitored in addition to the browser is a chat application. Chat client used the current user is different, some of which are known as ICQ, MSN, AOL, Miranda, Pidgin, Odigo, Google talk, Yahoo! Messenger, etc.. These applications can be set using the Messenger Blocker.

Users who have blocked the possibility to find a special message that its activities in the use of chat application has been blocked. But the message may not ditrampilkan to the user.

Download: www.amplusnet.com/Setups/messengerblocker.exe

File Size: 2.05 MB


K-Lite Mega Codec Pack 3.9.0

K-Lite Mega Codec pack include a full K-Lite Codec first, as well as in Quicktime, Real player codecs, and BS Player. K-Lite mega codec pack also includes a codec that is widely used by popular applications, such as: DivX and XviD.

Last Changes included in the K-Lite Mega Codec Pack 3.9.0 versions, some of which is Update Media Player Classic, ffdshow, Cyberlink mpeg-2 decoder, madFLAC, Haali Media Splitter, divx encoder, x264VWF, Mediainfolite, and change the default decoder divx to ffdshow in windows 2000/XP.

Download: http://tinyurl.com/4hm6p

General Specifications: Windows 2000/XP

File Size: 17 MB


Stellarium 0.10.2

This application is an open source planetarium application, which is usually served on the projector. This application shows a realistic sky in 3D form, as seen with the naked eye. You only need to do konfigursi coordinates and will soon be found on the layers of personal planetarium. You can zoom and adjust the display object in Stellarium.

There are various features of Stellarium, divided into several groups, among others Sky features, interface, visualization and customability.

Download: http://easynews.dl.sourceforge.net/sourceforge/stellarium/stellarium-0.10.2.exe

File Size: 40.92 MB


Adobe Photoshop CS4 11.0.1

One photo editing software of choice for professionals in the field of Graphic Design is Adobe Photoshop. Adobe Photoshop has released a new update, which is known as Adobe Photoshop CS 4 11.0.1 Update.

Pros: improved crash caused by a corrupted font, improved crash when doing Pasting formatted text, improving the quality of the results of the Auto-blend Layers (Images stack), the ability to recognize that the 3D texture-edited by the plug-ins, using a wacom rotation penbarrel tablets have now been able to function properly, and repair of several issues that resulted in weakening performance.

Download: http://download.adobe.com/pub/adobe/photoshop/win/cs4/Photoshop_11.0.1_mul_AdobeUpdate.zip

Minimum Specifications: Windows XP

File Size: 35.19 MB


Easy Boxshot 1.00.121

Sala one application that can be used for application specific template package is Easy Boxshot software.

The application is easy to use, and supports the storage of files in bmp, jpg, jpeg, gif and png. More than 50 templates you can choose. To use Easy Boxshot, the user first must make sure already have. Ner Framework version 2 on a minimal operating system. It is important to ensure the application can be run well.

Download: www.easyboxshot.com/download/EasyBoxShotSetup.msi

File Size: 10.25 MB


Phantom CD 0.9.7

For those of you that do read the CD / DVD repeatedly, especially for playing games, can cause damage to the optical drive CD / DVD-ROM drive or have difficulty reading the CD / DVD, as affected by heat, scratched and dirty.

To avoid that / extends the CD / DVD-ROM, you can use virtualization soft ware CD / DVD. One of them is a Phantom CD 0.9.7 which has the ability to read 200 times faster than reading the disk via the CD / DVD-ROM drives that physically enables your applications and games run faster.

Download: http://download.phantombility.com/phantomcd_setup.exe

File Size: 3.39 MB


DivX 6.8.2.8

DivX allows you to menontom DivX video with interactive features, such as video menus, subtitles and alternative audio tracks.

DivX is a combination of play DivX palyer, DivX Community Codec, and DivX Web Player. DivX on the package, also included a trial version of the DivX Converter and DivX Pro-Cidec timed 15 days. With DivX you can Men-Share movie collections with the store on a hard drive, without consuming a large storage capacity.

Download: http://download.divx.com/divx/DivXInstaller.exe

Minimum Specifications: Windows 2000

File Size: 15.74 MB


Twins Visions 0.3.4.1170

This application is a system innovative 3D image management, which enables you to navigate to a collection of photos that you have into a 3D form.

Twins Visions is designed to do all common tasks in one single point, such as view, edit and share.

Download: http://download.twins-solutions.com/visionssetup.exe

File Size: 6.2 MB


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