Sculpture is the branch of the art form of three-dimensional works. Usually created by carving, modeling (eg with clay materials) or casting (in print).
Various types of sculpture in many different regions in Asia, are usually influenced by Hinduism and Buddhism. A large number of Hindu statues preserved in Cambodia at Angkor, however organized looting that occurred a major impact on many heritage sites in the country. See also Angkor Wat. In Thailand, mostly in the form of statues devoted Buddhist. In Indonesia, the sculptures of Hindu influenced mostly found in the Prambanan site and various places on the island of Bali. While the influence of Buddhism found in the site of Borobudur Temple.
In India, the sculpture was first discovered in the Indus Valley civilization (3300-1700) BC. This is one early example of sculpture in the world. Then, after Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism developed further, India has created bronze sculptures and stone carvings with great complexity, such as those found in the ornaments of Hindu temples, Jain and Buddhist.
Artifacts found in China comes from around 10,000 BC. Most of China's sculpture is on display at the museum comes from some historical period, the Zhou Dynasty (1066-221 BC) to produce various types of bronze vessels printed with elaborate decoration. Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC), known for its line of statues of soldiers who made terracota. Han Dynasty (206 BC - 220AD) with statues of impressive power figures. The first Buddha statue found in the Three Kingdoms period (third century). Is regarded as the golden age of China is the period of the Tang Dynasty, during the civil war, the statues decorative figures made in large quantities and exported to fund the war. Then after the end of the Ming Dynasty (late 17th century) almost no statues of the museum collection, more of jewelry, precious stones, or pottery - and on the 20th century frenzy there is absolutely no work is recognized as a work of sculpture, even when There was a patterned sculpture school of social realism of Soviet influence in the early decades of the communist regime, and at the turn of the century, the craftsmen of China began to dominate commercial sculpture genres (the statue of miniature figures, toys, etc.) and China's avant-garde artists began to participate in European contemporary American art .
In Japan, sculpture and painting works of countless, often under government sponsorship. Most of the statues in Japan associated with religion, and in line with the reduced role of the Buddhist tradition, the type of material usage is also reduced. During the Kofun period (third century), clay sculptures called haniwa erected outside the tomb. In the Kondo who was in there Horyu-ji Shaka Trinity (623), statues of Buddha and the statues of two bodhisattvas called with the Kings Guard Four Directions. Wood sculpture (9th century) a portrait of Shakyamuni, a form of Buddhism, which decorate the secondary building in Muro-ji, is typical of the early Heian sculpture, with a heavy body, wrapped in thick folds draperi style carved hompa-shiki (rolling waves ), and facial expression that seemed serious and pulled away. Kei sculpture school, creating a new style of sculpture and more realistic.
African art has an emphasis on sculpture. African artists tend to prefer the work of three-dimensional than two dimensional. Although anthropologists argue that the statue was first known in Africa comes from the Nok culture in Nigeria around the year 500 BC, the art works of Pharaonic Africa (related to ancient Egyptian), period of time earlier than the Nok period. Metal statue came from the eastern part of west Africa, such as Benin, regarded as the best ever produced.
The statue was created and symbolized to reflect the place of origin where the statue was made. Based on the materials and techniques used and the function, sculpture different from one region to another.
In West Africa the figure of the statue has a long body, forms an angle, and facial appearance represents a more ideal form rather than the individual. These figures are used in religious rituals and often the surface coated with material through ritual offerings. In contrast to this is the statue that was created by the West African Mande language. The statue of their work made of wood and has a wide flat surface while the arms and legs shaped like a cylinder.
In Central Africa, including his trademark face shaped like a heart and curved into a circle and dot pattern. Although some groups prefer to face with the creation of geometric shapes and angled. The material used is wood, the most widely used, as well as ivory, bone, stone, clay and metal. Central African region has a flashy style of sculpture that can easily be identified from where the statue was made.
One type of three-dimensional works created in the East African region is the statue of the pole. Pole carved in human form and adorned with geometric shapes, while the top carved with figures of people, animals or other objects. This pole placed near the tomb and is associated with death.
Statue of clay figures of the oldest known in South Africa comes from the year 400 to 600 AD and have cylindrical heads. Figures of this clay has a joint appearance between humans and animals. In addition to the clay sculpture is also a wooden headrests that were buried with the tomb owner. This headrest of geometric shapes or figures of animals.
Work of ancient Egyptian sculpture was developed to represent the gods of ancient Egypt, also the Pharaoh, in physical form. The rules are very strictly followed when creating works of sculpture; statue of a man made darker than the female statue; in plays statue sits, hands should be placed on the knee and certain rules in describing the gods. Ranking based on artistic conformity with the rules, and regulations are strictly followed for thousands of years, so the appearance of the statue has not changed much except for a brief period during the rule of Akhenaten and Nefertiti, allowed a naturalistic depiction.
Classical Greek Roman
Classical sculpture in Europe refers to the art of sculpture from ancient Greece, ancient Rome and the civilization of Hellenization and the romanization or their influence from around the year 500 BC until the fall of Rome in the year 476 AD, the term is also used classical sculpture to modern sculpture made with classic style . Classical statues of Europe have characteristics as follows:
1. Full-body figure: a young male or female athlete nude.
2. Portraits: showing signs of age or a strong character.
3. Wearing costumes and attributes of classical deities
4. Concerned with naturalism based on the observation, often using a real model.
Naked sculptures are widely accepted by society, based on the length of tradition that supports it. But sometimes, there is objection to the theme of this nudity, usually from the moral and religious fundamentalists. For example, some Greek sculpture collection Vatican removed his penis.
Link to art, in this case is the architectural, European medieval (Gothic) with the art of Roman architecture called the Romanesque period. Work of the early Gothic sculpture is from the influence of the Christian religion, and the birth of the church and monastery walls. The statue is located in Chartres Cathedral (c. th. 1145) in France is the first sculpture Gothic era. In Germany, there is the Cathedral of Bamberg from 1225. In the UK, works of sculpture is limited to that used on a tombstone and non-figure decoration (partly this is because the Cistercian iconoclasm). In Italy, still forms dipengaruh classical era, such as those found in the pulpit and the baptistery at Pisa in Siena.
At the time of the renaissance, sculpture also revived, in some cases even earlier than the other artwork. One of the key figures in this period was Donatello, with a bronze sculpture, David (not to be confused with its David of Michelangelo). This is the work of early Renaissance sculpture. Likewise with the other Michelangelo sculpted David, also a Pieta. Statue of David by Michelangelo is one example of the style in describing kontraposto human figure. There are still some periods of the renaissance era to the modernism that is affected by changes in political, cultural movement or something else, namely the period of Mannerism, baroque and neo classical.
Auguste Rodin is one of the famous European sculptor of the early 20th century. He is often referred to as the statue of Impressionist artists. Classic modern sculpture is less interested in naturalism, details of anatomy or costume and more interested in stilisasi form, as well as the rhythm volume and space. Along with the development time, the modern style of classical sculpture was later adopted by the two totalitarian rulers of Europe: Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. While in other European regions, this force is transformed into a decorative / art deco (Paul Manship, Carl Milles), stilisasi abstract (Henry Moore, Alberto Giacometti) or more expressive. Modernist movement in art sculpture produced by Cubism, Futurism, minimalism, installation and Pop art.
In today's contemporary art which began to grow rapidly, the statue could be a kind of 'performance art'. For example in places like China, Japan, Canada, Sweden and Russia held an ice sculpture festival is held on a regular basis. The term used for the kinetic sculpture sculpture designed to be moved. Some of the artists who create works of kinetic sculpture is: Marcel Duchamp, Alexander Calder, George Rickey and Andy Warhol.
Art Sculptures in Indonesia
• Dolorosa Sinaga
• Edhi Sunarso
• Gregory Sidhartha
• I Nyoman Nuarta